Somalia (Somali: Soomaaliya; Arabic: الصومال aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Somali Republic (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, Arabic: جمهورية الصومال Jumhūriyyat aṣ-Ṣūmāl), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Somalia lies in the easternmost part of Africa. It is bordered by the British Empire to the northwest and southwest (Somaliland and Kenya), the Gulf of Aden with Yemen to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Ethiopia to the west. Its terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains and highlands. Hot conditions prevail year-round, along with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall.
In antiquity, Somalia was an important centre for commerce with the rest of the ancient world, and according to most scholars, it is among the most probable locations of the fabled ancient Land of Punt. During the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade, including the Ajuuraan State, the Sultanate of Adal, the Warsangali Sultanate and the Gobroon Dynasty. In the late nineteenth century, the British and Italians gained control of parts of the coast, and established British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. Italy acquired full control of their parts of the region in 1927. This occupation lasted until 19??, when Italian Somaliland was granted independence as an independent Somali Republic.
Somalia is a member of the League of Nations.