The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Upper Sorbian: Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia, Silesia and Bavaria, as well as Czechia. Its capital is Dresden, and its largest city is Leipzig.
Saxony is the eleventh-largest of Germany's eighteen states, with an area of 18,416 square kilometres (7,110 sq mi), and the sixth most populous, with 4.6 million people.
Located in the middle of a large, formerly all-German-speaking part of Europe, the history of the state of Saxony spans more than a millennium. It has been a medieval duchy, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom, and twice a republic.
The area of the modern state of Saxony should not be confused with Old Saxony, the area inhabited by Saxons. Old Saxony corresponds approximately to the modern German states of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and the Westphalian part of North Rhine-Westphalia.