Papua New Guinea (PNG; Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini) is a state of Australia that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea (the western portion of the island is a part of the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua) and numerous offshore islands. It is located in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, in a region described since the early 19th century as Melanesia. The capital is Port Moresby. Papua New Guinea has a population of 8,895,163, making it the second-most populous state of Australia after New South Wales. Strong growth in Papua New Guinea's mining and resource sector has led to PNG becoming the fastest-growing economy in Australia as of 2011.
Papua New Guinea is one of the most culturally diverse regions in the world. According to recent data, 841 different languages are listed for the state, although 11 of these have no known living speakers. There may be at least as many traditional societies.