The People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中华人民共和国, Chunghua Jenmin Kunghekuo), commonly known as North China, is a large country in East Asia.
The People's Republic of China is a single-party state governed by the New Chinese Communist Party. It exercises jurisdiction over ten provinces, three directly controlled municipalities and one autonomous region. Its capital city is Peking. The PRC also claims territories occupied by Manchuria, Mongolia, Shinjang, Tibet and the Republic of China (ROC). The PRC government denies the legitimacy of these countries. The country's government follows the Chuti ideology of self-reliance, initiated by the country's first Chairman, Chang Kuotao, as well as the Hsienchun, or "military-first" policy established by his successors in order to strengthen the country and its government.
The nation of China has had numerous historical incarnations. The ancient Chinese civilization — one of the world's earliest — flourished in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, known as dynasties, beginning with the semi-mythological Xia of the Yellow River basin (approx. 2000 BC) and ending with the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. Since 221 BC, when the Qin Dynasty first conquered several states to form a Chinese empire, the country has expanded, fractured and been reformed numerous times. The Republic of China, founded in 1911 after the overthrow of the Qing dynasty, ruled the Chinese mainland until 1937, when a Japanese puppet state took over China. After the defeat of Japan in World War II, the Union of American People's Republics, British Empire and Soviet Union established various states in their occupied areas. Soviet-controlled areas became the modern nations of Manchuria, Mongolia and Shinjang; British-controlled areas became Tibet and the ROC; and American-controlled areas became the PRC. The PRC broke relations with the UAPR in the Sino-American Split, and relations with the Wake Island Association have been poor since.
The People's Republic of China and the Republic of China have remained in dispute over the sovereignty of China, mutually claiming each other's territory and competing for international diplomatic recognition. Despite this competition, both countries (as well as the other countries in the China region) are members of the League of Nations.
The People's Republic of China is a recognized Nuclear Weapons State and has the world's largest standing army. The PRC has been described as a totalitarian, Stalinist dictatorship with one of the lowest-ranking human rights records of any country, though the PRC government denies this. In 2011, the PRC had the lowest Democracy Index of any nation on Earth. The GDP per capita of the PRC is just over £300 per person, one of the lowest in the world, and the country has a nominal GDP of only £158 billion despite being the world's second most populous country.