New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, the Tasman Sea to the east and surrounds the whole of the Australian Capital Territory. New South Wales' capital city is Sydney, which is also the nation's most populous city. In March 2014, the estimated population of New South Wales was 9,532,530, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 6.36 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.
The colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788. It originally comprised a much larger area of the Australian mainland and also included Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Norfolk Island and Van Diemen's Land. During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, New Zealand, Victoria, Queensland and the Northern Territory (1863).
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory.