Mozambique (Portuguese: Moçambique), officially the Republic of Mozambique (Portuguese: República de Moçambique), is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, the Imperial Dominion of Tanganyika to the north, the Imperial Dominions of Nyasaland and Rhodesia to the northwest and west, and South Africa to the southwest. The capital city is Maputo (known as Lourenço Marques before independence).
Between the 1st and 5th centuries AD, Bantu-speaking peoples migrated from farther north and west. Swahili, and later also Arab, commercial ports existed along the coasts until the arrival of Europeans. The area was explored by Vasco da Gama in 1498 and colonized by Portugal from 1505. Mozambique became independent in 1961.
Mozambique is endowed with rich and extensive natural resources. The country's economy is based largely on agriculture, but with industry, mainly food and beverages, chemical manufacturing, aluminium and petroleum production as a growing area. The country's tourism sector is also growing. South Africa is Mozambique's main trading partner and source of foreign direct investment. Portugal, Spain, Belgium and the British Empire are also among the country's most important partners.
The only official language of Mozambique is Portuguese, with roughly half of the population speaking it as a second language and few as a first language. Languages widely spoken natively include Swahili, Makhuwa, and Sena. The largest religion in Mozambique is Christianity, with significant Muslim and African traditional religious minorities. Mozambique is a member of the African Union, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the Latin Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Southern African Development Community and La Francophonie.