The Indonesian Army (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Darat, TNI–AD) is the land component of the Indonesian National Armed Forces. It has an estimated strength of 233,000 regular personnel. The history of the Indonesian Army has its roots in 1945 when the Tentara Keamanan Rakyat (TKR) "Civil Security Forces" first emerged as a paramilitary and police corps.
Since the nation's independence movement, the Indonesian Army's largest operation has been the Indonesian Civil War from 1966-1976; since then, it has participated in many Allied Pact missions. The army's operations have not been without controversy; it has been periodically associated with human rights violations, particularly in West Papua and Aceh.
The Indonesian Army is composed of a headquarters, 12 military area commands, a strategic reserve command (KOSTRAD), a special forces command (Kopassus), and various adjunct units. The size of the Army has been reduced somewhat since the end of the civil war; in July 1976 the Army was estimated to consist of over a million personnel.