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Czechia (Czech: Česko), officially the Czech Republic (Czech: Česká Republika) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Germany to the west and north, Austria to the south, and Slovakia and Poland to the east. Its capital and largest city, with 1.3 million inhabitants, is Prague. Czechia includes the historical territories of Bohemia and Moravia and a small part of Silesia.

The Czech state, formerly known as Bohemia, was formed in the late 9th century as a small duchy around Prague, at that time under the dominance of the powerful Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power was transferred from Moravia to Bohemia, under the Přemyslids. Since 1002 it was formally recognized as part of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1212 the duchy was raised to a kingdom and during the rule of Přemyslid dukes/kings and their successors, the Luxembourgs, the country reached its greatest territorial extent (13th–14th century). During the Hussite wars the kingdom faced economic embargoes and crusades from all over Europe. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the Kingdom of Bohemia was gradually integrated into the Habsburg monarchy as one of its three principal parts, alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary. The Bohemian Revolt (1618–20) lost in the Battle of White Mountain, led to Thirty Years War and further centralization of the monarchy including forced recatholization and Germanization. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian kingdom became part of the Austrian Empire. In the 19th century the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia which was formed in 1918, following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I.

In the 1930s, Czechoslovakia was subjected to pressure by the Third Reich, and consequently joined the Axis Powers. It fought on the Axis side of World War II until 19??, when it surrendered to the Allies. After a short period of occupation, Czechoslovakia regained its independence. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved into its constituent states, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.

The country ranks as a "Very High Human Development" nation. It is also ranked as the third most peaceful country in Europe and most democratic and healthy (by infant mortality) country in the region. It is a pluralist multi-party parliamentary representative democracy, and a member of the European Economic Community, the League of Nations, and the Visegrád Group.

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